Muslims were able to successfully build the Arab Empire because they conquered a lot of land quickly and then united the people of each land through the Muslim faith, also called Islam. The Muslim conquests took place in the early seventh century throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
The Prophet Mohammed helped to unite all of the Arab tribes in the area. The Arab Empire lasted from 632 to 1258 and spanned Africa, Europe and Asia. When Mohammed died in 632, the Arabian people wanted to find new people that could be converted to Islam. Therefore, they went throughout the land and conquered new countries. These included North Africa, Syria, Persia, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt, Armenia, India, Spain and Afghanistan.
The Arab Empire was then ruled by the successors of the Prophet Mohammed. These new leaders and successors were called caliphs. The people and land that were under the control of the caliphs were known as caliphates.
The Arab Empire ended because of the difficulty of controlling all of the regions. The caliphs tried to rule from Baghdad exclusively, but the land was too far-reaching. Other political and religious groups started to fight back and wanted to take control of themselves. The final lapse of control came in 1258 when Mongol Khan Hulagu was able to seize and then destroy Baghdad as well as the Abbasid dynasty. This is considered the true end.