Islamic scholars divide religions mainly into two:
1. True religions.
2. Wrong religions.
The religions that are based on belief in one God and order people to worship and obey only Him are called “true religions”. True religions are the religions sent by Allah. Therefore, they are also called heavenly religions. True religions are also called “the religion of oneness” because they are based on belief in oneness of Allah and worshipping Him only.
The religions that were not sent by Allah, that were made up by men and that are not based on belief in one God are called “wrong religions”.
Some true religions were distorted by men afterwards; and superstitions and wrong beliefs that were not originally present in them were added later. The religions that were true religions at first but that were altered later are called “distorted religions”; for instance, Judaism and Christianity.
The first religion of humanity is the religion of oneness based on the belief of one God, sent to Adam, the first man and first prophet. Sociological researches prove that the first religion of man was the religion of oneness. As a matter of fact, Schmidt, a researcher of history of religions and a sociologist, showed that Pigmies, who are the most primitive society on earth, were monotheistic people. The findings of Schmidt refuted the claim of Durkheim stating that Totemism was the first religion of humanity and eliminated the common view on the issue in the West.
After Hz. Adam (pbuh), some people moved away from the belief of oneness, were alienated from the true religions and adopted some wrong beliefs in the course of time by obeying their souls and the suggestions of Satan. Thus, wrong religions appeared. As people moved away from the true religion, God Almighty sent them new prophets and new religions and invited them to the belief of oneness. However, some people accepted this invitation but others insisted on their wrong beliefs. Let alone insisting on their own beliefs, they tried to prevent those who wanted to return to the true religion and oppressed and tortured them. Thus, there was always a struggle between those who believed in the true religion and those who did not believe in every century and era. This struggle is still going on and it will go on until Doomsday.
The Last Divine Religion is Islam.
None of the divine books that were sent down before the Quran has their original versions today. In the course of time, their original versions got lost and they were written again by people. Therefore, superstitions and wrong beliefs were included in them. For instance, it is a historical fact that the Torah could not be maintained after Hz. Musa (Moses) by Jews, who lived in exile as slaves for centuries and who lost their beliefs and became idolaters; it is also a historical fact that the existing version of the Torah was written by some scholars and it was accepted as if it was the original Torah. It is clear that a book that was introduced after such a long and disorderly period cannot be the same Torah that was sent down to Hz. Moses. Therefore, it contains some claims and slanders that do not befit prophets and decrees that are contrary to the spirit of the religion.
The Psalms that were sent down toDavid (Dawud) were exposed to the same things.
As for the Gospel (Bible), Hz. Jesus did not have the revelations he received written because he became a prophet when he was thirty years old and his duty of prophethood ended when he was thirty-three. He went from village to village and from city to city in order to guide people in a very short time as three years. During his last days, he was always followed by the Roman administrators due to the incitement of Jews. He could not find time or opportunity to have the Gospel written. As a matter of fact, the Gospels that exist today are named by the people who wrote them and they look like a biography that include the preaching, lessons and guidance of Jesus to his apostles. Besides, they were not written by his apostles, who were the first believers, but those who listened to the divine words that were sent to Jesus from them.
There are some differences among the existing Bibles in terms of content and narration. In fact, these Bibles were accepted by a council consisting of one thousand clergymen in 325 AD in Nicaea. This council examined hundreds of Bibles and accepted the 4 Bibles that claimed that Jesus was divine by the agreement of 318 members and destroyed the remaining Bibles by burning them.
As it is seen, the principle that Jesus was God’s son – God forbid – was accepted by a council that convened years after Jesus. Therefore, it is not possible to say that the existing four Bibles are like the original Bibles.