It is enough to have a glance in this unique nature to see the order in its every dimension. Do you think that this orderly universe might have been created by two gods? Let’s know God by thinking in the nature.
“If there had been in them any gods except Allah, they would both have certainly been in a state of disorder; therefor glory be to Allah, the Lord of the dominion, above what they attribute (to him).” (The Qur’an, Surah al-anbiya (21/The Prophets), Verse No 22)
In this verse of the Qur’an, by a ratiocination, God is about to cause human beings to understand this subject that by contemplating and thinking in the nature, they will apprehend this point that it’s just Allah, the One, who is the instigator and director of this universe , so there is nothing worthy of worship and service except Allah.
There are some points in this verse which we are trying to study:
1. The design argument
2. The TAMANE argument
3. It’s just Allah, the One, who can be the instigator of the universe. (It means it’s not supposable that this universe is running by itself or in addition to God, there are other deities administering the universe.)
The Design Argument
The design argument sometimes known as the ultimate argument means some functions stand in a unit collection beside each other orderly so that a single purpose or end eventuate from their collection.
Ayatollah Sobhani explains the order as: “The order is a harmonic relation between the elements of a collection to fulfill a specific purpose so that every element of this collection is the supplement of the other and the loss of each causes the collection to lose its specific purpose and desired effect.”
For example, imagine the parts of a machine; these parts have been set beside each other precisely and regularly in a way that cause the machine to work well. Now, if one of these parts weren’t in their proper place or broke down, the machine would definitely break down.
So, as a man ratiocinates by the machine’s precise work that it should have a designer and a maker who is wise while capable of making this machine; similarly, the design argument is to prove that the order we see in the universe of nature, passing the day into the night and passing the night into the day, the arrangement of the seasons and etc. show that a wise and almighty designer has created the universe .
But one might propound that in addition to God, the One, there are other deities who have brought the universe in order with each other; as the polytheists assumed some associates with God and presumed deities of the sun, the moon and the star.
Indeed, in this verse of the Qur’an, God ratiocinate against this group of people that there is no god but God, the One and it is only Him who is Almighty and Powerful who cause the universe to work precisely and regularly. Otherwise, the universe couldn’t work that way. This argument is called TAMANE argument by Philosophers.
The TAMANE Argument
The description of تمانع argument: if two self-existents were considered -each with its special adjectives- and also, it was considered that one of them was about to create something in the universe and the other was about to will against it; for example, one willed the rotation of the firmament and the other willed its inertia, or one willed the life of somebody and the other willed his death, it would be in three forms: weather the both wills would be done, or none would be done or just one of them would be done. These three are void, because the first is required of combination of two opposites, the second is the negation of capability of the both, and the third is negation of the one whose will wasn’t done. So, there is no god in the word except One.
Now, imagine the word with two gods and consider that the two are about to create the universe and regularize it. Because God have all the attributes of perfection, each will try to regularize the best possible universe. But because there are two gods who are complete, it’s impossible to consider that the both create the same universe , so, each will create a universe which has a special characteristic, the other doesn’t have. As a result, the universe will be a defective universe and assuredly the order we see now, will not be there.
As God explain in Surah al-anbiya (The Prophets), Verse No 22, if the universe had two instigators and two disciplinarians, it would collapse; because the laws of nature have been set in a way that the smallest disagreement in that causes us not to see the present universe.
For example, Stephen Hawking, an author and English prominent physicist says: “If the rate of expansion one second after the Big Bang had been smaller by even one part in 100 thousand million million, the universe would have collapsed before it ever reached its present size.”
So, it’s just Allah, the One, who is the creator and disciplinarian of the universe and it’s God, the One and the Unique who preside over the universe.