Mecca is the mother of all cities and is the center for Islam; it also has been honored and respected in the history especially since Prophet Ibrahim era (PBUH). The first verses of holy Quran were received by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) here. Mecca is 330 m higher than sea level and is surrounded by different mountains, it also is about 80 KM far away from Jeddah and its temperature varies from 18 c in winter to 47 c in summer. Although this city has always been honored since million years ago, its history is vague. According to Quran, Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) was the first human being who accommodated in this dessert with his family. Later a group called ”Amaliq” took over this place. In the fourth century, due to the chaos in social and political status of this peninsula; a tribe called ”Jorham” stayed in mecca and ruled the city. After them, another tribe called ”Khazaeh”get control of this place and at the beginning of the sixth century, Qosa Ibn Kallab, the great grandfather of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) took the Qorayesh Tribe, who were living in the dessert and valleys outside of the mecca, to the city; he built ”Dar Al Nadwa” and became the ruler. ”Dar Al Nadwa” was the first and the last advisory session in the Saudi Arabia. Later on, it became the house of kings and rulers and then gradually was destroyed and was connected to the mosque. Nowadays it is totally lost.
Mecca’s holy places and symbols has interested many tourists and Muslims and every year, millions of Muslims from various countries visit this city.
Mecca has dry climate and is a little moister than Madinah. It is located 80 Km far from Red Sea and is 330 m higher than sea level. Its distance from Jeddah is only 60 Km if you took the highway and 425 Km from Madinah if you drive in Hijrat Highway. Mecca is surrounded by mountains and Arabs calls the distance between mountains “Shib” the mountains are made of stones and are not very high. Now, there are many hotels and houses surrounding of the Masjid Al-haram on these stony hills. Many tunnels had been constructed to facilitate coming and going which reduce the distance amazingly.
Different names of Mecca
One of the names of mecca which has been mentioned in Quran (Suraj Al Omran 96) is ”Bacheh”:
• إِنَّ اوَّلَ یَبْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنّاسِ لَلَّذِی بِبَکَّةَ مُبَارَکاً وَهُدیً لِلْعالَمِینَ
Most surely the first house appointed for men is the one at Bekka, blessed and a guidance for the nations.
Many analysts believe that this word is in fact Alback; meaning ”to gather”; when a crowd of people are gathered in a place; The Arab say: Yubak Alnas; according to narratives of the Shia Imams, Mecca is called Bacheh because many of people are gathered besides the God’s House.
The mother town
According to Quran, mecca is called Mother of Cities (Shura, 7):
وَکَذلِکَ اءَوْحَیْنا إ لَیْکَ قُراناً عَرَبِیّاً لِتُنْذِرَ اُمَّ القُری وَمَنْ حَوْلَها And thus we have inspired in thee a Lecture in Arabic, that thou mayest warn the mother town and those around it.
According to many Shia analysts, this word means that the root of all cities, is mecca because it was the first spot of the earth that appeared and is better than all cites as it’s honored and great. For Islam had emerged from there and then had spread to other cities.
ALbalad al-Amin (the secure land)
This is another name of Mecca mentioned in Quran (Teen, 3):
وَهَذا البَلَدُ الاَمِینَ  And by oath of this secure land,
All analysts believe that in this veers, the secure land means Mecca. The possible reasoning is that Mecca is the God’s Haram and anyone who dies here; would be safe from the horror and fear of the day of Judgment.
Now we will introduce some religious and interesting places of Mecca.