Muslim scientists

List of Muslim scientists
Astronomers and astrologers
Sind ibn Ali (-864)
Ali Qushji (1403-1474)
Ahmad Khani (1650-1707)
Ibrahim al-Fazari (-777)
Muhammad al-Fazari (-796 or 806)
Al-Khwarizmi, Mathematician (780-850 CE)
Abu Ma’shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar) (787-886 CE)
Al-Farghani (800/805-870)
Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa) (9th century)
Dīnawarī (815-896)
Al-Majriti (d. 1008 or 1007 CE)
Al-Battani (858-929 CE) (Albatenius)
Al-Farabi (872-950 CE) (Abunaser)
Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi (903-986)
Abu Sa’id Gorgani (9th century)
Kushyar ibn Labban (971-1029)
Abū Ja’far al-Khāzin (900-971)
Al-Mahani (8th century)
Al-Marwazi (9th century)
Al-Nayrizi (865-922)
Al-Saghani (-990)
Al-Farghani (9th century)
Abu Nasr Mansur (970-1036)
Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (10th century) (Kuhi)
Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi (940-1000)
Abū al-Wafā’ al-Būzjānī (940-998)
Ibn Yunus (950-1009)
Ibn al-Haytham (965-1040) (Alhacen)
Bīrūnī (973-1048)
Avicenna (980-1037) (Ibn Sīnā)
Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (1029-1087) (Arzachel)
Omar Khayyám (1048-1131)
Al-Khazini (fl. 1115-1130)
Ibn Bajjah (1095-1138) (Avempace)
Ibn Tufail (1105-1185) (Abubacer)
Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi (-1204) (Alpetragius)
Averroes (1126-1198)
Al-Jazari (1136-1206)
Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1135-1213)
Anvari (1126-1189)
Mo’ayyeduddin Urdi (-1266)
Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-1274)
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311)
Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī (1250-1310)
Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375)
Shams al-Dīn Abū Abd Allāh al-Khalīlī (1320-80)
Jamshīd al-Kāshī (1380-1429)
Ulugh Beg (1394-1449)
Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma’ruf (1526-1585)
Ahmad Nahavandi (8th and 9th centuries)
Haly Abenragel (10th and 11th century)
Abolfadl Harawi (10th century)
Mu’ayyad al-Din al-‘Urdi (1200-1266)

Biologists, neuroscientists, and psychologists
Aziz Sancar, Turkish biochemist, the first Muslim biologist awarded the Nobel Prize
Ahmad-Reza Dehpour (1948- ), Iranian pharmacologist
Ibn Sirin (654-728), author of work on dreams and dream interpretation
Al-Kindi (Alkindus), pioneer of psychotherapy and music therapy
Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, pioneer of psychiatry, clinical psychiatry and clinical psychology
Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, pioneer of mental health, medical psychology, cognitive psychology, cognitive therapy, psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine
Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), pioneer of social psychology and consciousness studies
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), pioneer of neurosurgery
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), founder of experimental psychology, psychophysics, phenomenology and visual perception
Al-Biruni, pioneer of reaction time
Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā), pioneer of neuropsychiatry, thought experiment, self-awareness and self-consciousness
Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), pioneer of neurology and neuropharmacology
Syed Ziaur Rahman, pioneer of Environmental Pharmacovigilance
Averroes, pioneer of Parkinson’s disease
Ibn Tufail, pioneer of tabula rasa and nature versus nurture
Mohammad Samir Hossain, theorist, author and one of the few Muslim scientists in the field of death anxiety research

Chemists and alchemists
Khalid ibn Yazid (-704) (Calid)
Jafar al-Sadiq (702-765)
Jābir ibn Hayyān (721-815) (Geber), father of chemistry
Abbas Ibn Firnas (810-887) (Armen Firman)
Al-Kindi (801-873) (Alkindus)
Al-Majriti (fl. 1007-1008)
Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030)
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048)
Avicenna (980-1037)
Al-Khazini (fl. 1115-1130)
Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-1274)
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (1897-1994)
Al-Khwārizmī (780-850), algebra, mathematics
Ahmed H. Zewail (1946-2016), Egyptian Chemist and 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Abbas Shafiee (1937-2016)
Mostafa El-Sayed (1933- )
Abdul Qadeer Khan (1936- )
Atta ur Rahman
Omar M. Yaghi (1965- )
Sara Akbar

Economists and social scientists
Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man (699–767), Islamic jurisprudence scholar
Abu Yusuf (731–798), Islamic jurisprudence scholar
Al-Saghani (-990), one of the earliest historians of science
Shams al-Mo’ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir (Qabus) (d. 1012), economist
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048), considered the “first anthropologist” and father of Indology
Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) (980–1037), economist
Ibn Miskawayh (1030-), economist
Al-Ghazali (Algazel) (1058–1111), economist
Al-Mawardi (1075–1158), economist
Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (Tusi) (1201–1274), economist
Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), sociologist
Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), economist
Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), forerunner of social sciences such as demography, cultural history, historiography, philosophy of history, sociology and economics
Al-Maqrizi (1364–1442), economist
Akhtar Hameed Khan, Pakistani social scientist; pioneer of microcredit
Muhammad Yunus, Nobel Peace Prize winner Bangladeshi economist; pioneer of microfinance
Shah Abdul Hannan, pioneer of Islamic banking in South Asia
Mahbub ul Haq, Pakistani economist; developer of Human Development Index and founder of Human Development Report

Geographers and earth scientists
Al-Masudi, the “Herodotus of the Arabs”, and pioneer of historical geography
Al-Kindi, pioneer of environmental science
al-Hamdani
Ibn Al-Jazzar
Al-Tamimi
Al-Masihi
Ali ibn Ridwan
Muhammad al-Idrisi, also a cartographer
Ahmad ibn Fadlan
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, father of geodesy, considered the first geologist and “first anthropologist”
Avicenna
Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi
Averroes
Ibn al-Nafis
Ibn Jubayr
Ibn Battuta
Ibn Khaldun
Piri Reis
Evliya Çelebi

Mathematicians
Masatoshi Gündüz Ikeda (1926 Tokyo–2003 Ankara)
Cahit Arf (1910 Selanik (Thessaloniki)–1997 Istanbul)
Ali Qushji
Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Matar
Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi), father of algebra and algorithms
‘Abd al-Hamīd ibn Turk
Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī (1412–1482), pioneer of symbolic algebra
Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam
Al-Abbās ibn Said al-Jawharī
Al-Kindi (Alkindus)
Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa)
Ja’far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
Al-Khwarizmi
Al-Mahani
Ahmed ibn Yusuf
Al-Majriti
Al-Battani (Albatenius)
Al-Farabi (Abunaser)
Al-Nayrizi
Abū Ja’far al-Khāzin
Brethren of Purity
Abu’l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi
Al-Saghani
Abū Sahl al-Qūhī
Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi
Abū al-Wafā’ al-Būzjānī
Ibn Sahl
Al-Sijzi
Ibn Yunus
Abu Nasr Mansur
Kushyar ibn Labban
Al-Karaji
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen/Alhazen)
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi
Al-Nasawi
Al-Jayyani
Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel)
Al-Mu’taman ibn Hud
Omar Khayyám
Al-Khazini
Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
Al-Ghazali (Algazel)
Al-Marrakushi
Al-Samawal
Ibn Rushd (Averroes)
Ibn Seena (Avicenna)
Hunayn ibn Ishaq
Ibn al-Banna’
Ibn al-Shatir
Ja’far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma’shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar)
Jamshīd al-Kāshī
Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī
Muḥyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī
Mo’ayyeduddin Urdi
Muhammad Baqir Yazdi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, 13th century Persian mathematician and philosopher
Qāḍī Zāda al-Rūmī
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī
Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī
Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma’ruf
Ulugh Beg
Al-Samawal al-Maghribi (1130–1180)

Philosophers
For a detailed list of Muslim philosophers, refer to the List of Muslim philosophers, for an exhaustive list of widely-known philosophers with Muslim faith or Islamic background, including modern day philosophers from Muslim community, a list is given here;

Al-Kindi
Averroes
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Al-Farabi
Avicenna
Ibn Arabi
Rumi
Jami
Ibn Khaldun
Mir Damad
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Muhammad Iqbal
Quassim Cassam

Physicists and engineers
Mimar Sinan (1489-1588), also known as Koca Mi’mâr Sinân Âğâ
Jafar al-Sadiq, 8th century
Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa), 9th century
Ja’far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), 9th century
Al-Saghani (d. 990)
Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (Kuhi), 10th century
Ibn Sahl, 10th century
Ibn Yunus, 10th century
Al-Karaji, 10th century
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), 11th century Iraqi scientist, father of optics, and experimental physics, considered the “first scientist”
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, 11th century, pioneer of experimental mechanics
Ibn Sīnā/Seena (Avicenna), 11th century
Al-Khazini, 12th century
Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), 12th century
Hibat Allah Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (Nathanel), 12th century
Ibn Rushd/Rooshd (Averroes), 12th century Andalusian mathematician, philosopher and medical expert
Al-Jazari, 13th century civil engineer,
Nasir al-Din Tusi, 13th century
Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, 13th century
Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī, 13th century
Ibn al-Shatir, 14th century
Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma’ruf, 16th century
Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, 17th century
Lagari Hasan Çelebi, 17th century
Sake Dean Mahomet, 18th century
Abdus Salam, 20th century Pakistani physicist, winner of Nobel Prize in 1979
Fazlur Khan, 20th century Bangladeshi Structural Engineer
Mahmoud Hessaby, 20th century Iranian physicist
Ali Javan, 20th century Iranian physicist
B. J. Habibie, 20th century Indonesian aerospace engineer and president
Abdul Kalam, Indian aeronautical engineer, nuclear scientist and the 11th President of India
Mehran Kardar, Iranian theoretical physicist
Munir Nayfeh Palestinian-American particle physicist
Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistani metallurgist and nuclear scientist
Riazuddin, Pakistani theoretical physicist
Samar Mubarakmand, Pakistani nuclear scientist known for his research in gamma spectroscopy and experimental development of the linear accelerator
Shahid Hussain Bokhari, Pakistani researcher in the field of parallel and distributed computing
Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood, Pakistani nuclear engineer and nuclear physicist
Ali Musharafa, Egyptian nuclear physicist
Sameera Moussa, Egyptian nuclear physicist
Munir Ahmed Khan, Pakistani nuclear scientist
Kerim Kerimov, founder of Soviet space program, a lead architect behind first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and the lead architect of the first space stations (Salyut and Mir)
Farouk El-Baz, NASA scientist involved in the first Moon landings with the Apollo program
Cumrun Vafa, Iranian theoretical physicist and string theorist
Jamal Nazrul Islam, Bangladeshi mathematical physicist and cosmologist

Political scientists
Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
Taqiuddin al-Nabhani
Syed Qutb
Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr
Abul Ala Maududi
Hasan al-Turabi
Hassan al-Banna
Mohamed Hassanein Heikal
M. A. Muqtedar Khan
Rashid al-Ghannushi
Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Allama Muhammad Iqbal